The truth about our country - or who had to die so we can have our "American Dream"
Keep in mind that this timeline is just the overt actions of our military, institutions, government, people. The covert actions of the CIA, etc., are not included here.
This is a timeline of the peoples that white people had to murder, steal from, enslave, rape and torture in order to build this nation into the richest country in the world, in order to secure 25-60% of the world's resources for 4-5% of the world's people.
The American Dream: who needed to Die!
There are two major problems in our country and activist movements: 1) we do not know the true history of our country; and 2) we know too well the lies, myths, propaganda that has been shoved down our throats until it has become part of our cellular structure.
Until we face the painful truths of our nation, until we see clearly the abundant and intertwined lies, we will not be able to accomplish true and real change.
We will not know all the tiny & huge ways the "American Dream" is in reality the "American Nitemare". We will not know we need to immediately resist, cease and dismantle the pursuit of the "American Dream".
We will not know that everything, that is EVERYTHING, we have in this country we got by killing people. Everyone who pursues the "American Dream" has blood on her hands - which is why, as a people, we are so obsessed with cleanliness: our hands will never be clean until we wash in the truths of the "American Nitemare":
1492 Columbus records the first encounters froth with enslavement, murder, rape by the Europeans against the welcoming, gentle, vulnerable New World Indians.
1607 First English speaking white colonizers arrive in Virginia
1616 First recorded slaughter of the 1600’s by a group of white men who massacre over 40 Chickahominy Indians.
1619 U.S. Slave Trade begins with enslavement of 20 Africans by Jamestown Colony whites.
1637 New England colonists massacre 700 women, children, men Indigenous Pequot people, steal food & supplies, rob ancestral grave offerings, and return for the 1st “Thanksgiving” Celebration.
1639 Captain William Pierce of Salem, Massachusetts sails to the West Indies and exchanges enslaved Indians for enslaved Africans.
1675-76, 1690, 1702, 1704, 1709, 1711, 1715, 1716, 1721, 1725, 1745, 1754 – enslavement, genocide, wars, rapes continue by whites against Indigenous People
1755 Massachusetts offers bounty of twenty pounds for the scalp of male Indian and ten pounds for the scalp of female Indian or an Indian child under 12
1756 Pennsylvania Governor Robert Morris declares war on the Delaware and Shawnee Indians, including "The Scalp Act," which put a bounty on the scalps of Indian men, women and boys.
1758 First reservation in U.S. colonies established by New Jersey Colonial Assembly
1759-1761 English Colonists declare war on Cherokee Indians
1763 The 14 surviving Conestoga Indians in Lancaster, Pa are hacked to death by white mob
1769 Genocide of California Indians begins with padre junipero serra who establishes first Spanish missions in California Indians are enslaved and forced to live on mission grounds.
1772-1780 4/5 of the Arikara die of continued exposure to smallpox, measles, etc.
1776 The Declaration of Independence the basis for the ideology of us democracy, equality, & inalienable rights excludes Africans, Indigenous People, and European women.
1776–1777 Second War against Cherokee
1776–1794 War against Chickamauga
1781 Smallpox wipes out more than half the Piegan Blackfeet.
1782 Captain David Williamson and about 90 volunteer militiamen slaughter 62 adults and 34 children of the neutral, pacifist, and Christian Delaware people at Gnadenhutten, Ohio
1785–1795 War against Northwest Indians
1789 The Constitution of the United States protects slavery and the slave trade in 12 different places
1790 Congress in its first session enacts the Naturalization Law of 1790 that specifies only free white immigrants are eligible for naturalized citizenship. Immigrants from Asia, the Caribbean, Central and South America, and Africa are expressly denied civil rights, the right to vote, and therefore the right to own land. Also excluded from these rights are Indigenous People and by states rights most free Africans. The 1790 naturalization law is not completely wiped off the books until the McCarran Walter act of 1952
1790 U.S. Army invades Shawnee territory in western Ohio and suffers defeat
1798-1800 Dominican Republic: Navy battles French for control of that island.
1801-1805 Libya: Marines invade “shores of Tripoli” (land now know as Libya) – first “overseas” action by marines to protect u.s.a. ‘shipping’ business interest
1813-1814 War instigated by General Andrew Jackson against Creek Indians: 2/3s (14 million acres) of tribal lands confiscated; Creek dead counted by whites cutting of their noses & piling 557 of them; bodies skinned to tan as souvenirs.
1813-1814 Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) U.S. forces build fort to protect U.S. shipping business interest
1815 Algeria: 2nd Barbary War, naval fleet attacked Algiers
1816 Northern whites organize U.S. Colonization Society to ship free blacks back to Africa
1816 United States forces destroy Negro Fort, which harbored African and Seminole fighters
1818 First war of U.S. against Seminole Indians and once enslaved Africans in Florida, known in history books as the “Florida Purchase”
1818 Oregon: The USS Ontario dispatched from Washington, lands at the mouth of the Columbia River to assert US claims.
1820 More than 20,000 Indians are now living in virtual slavery on California Missions
1822 Cuba: United States naval forces land on northwest coast, protecting U.S. business interests
1823 Cuba: Additional landings
1824 Cuba: Again protecting U.S. & European business interests
1824 Puerto Rico (Spanish territory): protecting U.S. business interests
1825 Cuba: Again protecting U.S. & European business interests
1827 Greece: Landing parties protecting U.S.A. business interests
1830 Indian Removal Act: the first act initiated by President Andrew Jackson calls for the voluntary or forcible removal of the Choctaw, Creek, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Seminole nations from southeastern states. The territory of Oklahoma is set aside as Indian territory
1830 David Walker, militant anti-slavery and anti-racist, African American author of “The Appeal To The Colored Citizens Of The World”, mysteriously drops dead in front of his boston storefront. friends and associates suspect poison but no investigation is done.
1831–32 Falkland Islands: to punish Indigenous peoples & to protect U.S. interests.
1832 Sumatra, Indonesia: Attack on Quallah Battoo to punish Indigenous peoples & protect U.S. business interests
1832 On August 2, some 150 Sac and Fox men, women and children, under a flag of truce, were massacred at Bad Axe River by the Illinois militia.
1833 Argentina: A force was sent ashore at Buenos Aires to protect the interests of the United States and other countries during an insurrection.
1833 Law passed: any Indian is forbidden to remain within the boundaries of the state of Florida.
1835–36 Peru: Marines protect U.S. interests during an attempted revolution.
1835-42 Second and most terrible of three wars against the Seminole with the U.S. spending 40-60 million dollars to remove the Seminoles from Florida
1835 U.S. slave holding colonists in northern Mexican territory of Texas declare war on México
1837 2/3s of Blackfeet nation dies of small pox
1838 The Cherokee Nations Trail of Tears in which 25% of their population dies in the forced march to Indian territory
1838–39 Sumatra (Indonesia): A naval force landed to punish Indigenous peoples & protect U.S. business interest
1840 Fiji Islands: Naval forces land to punish Indigenous peoples for attacking U.S.A. exploring and surveying parties
1841 McKean Island (Drummond Island/Taputenea), Gilbert Islands (Kingsmill Group), Pacific Ocean: A naval party lands to avenge the murder of a seaman by the Indigenous peoples.
1841 Samoa: A naval party lands, fights, and burns towns.
1843 China: Sailors and marines land after a clash between U.S. and Chinese at the trading post in Canton.
1843 Africa: Four U.S. vessels demonstrate and land various parties (one of 200 marines and sailors) to punish attacks by the Indigenous peoples on U.S. seamen and shipping.
1846 México: U.S. government declares war on México
1848 U.S. defeats México, one third of the Mexican nation now belongs to the U.S.: the future states of California, Texas, Utah, New México, Arizona, Nevada, parts of Colorado and Wyoming.
1848The Texas Rangers become institutionalized as the occupying army over conquered Mexicans in the state of Texas
1848 Congress enacts “Statement of Protocol” which protects these lands according to the laws of the United States. Mexicans have to prove in U.S. courts speaking English with U.S. lawyers that they have legitimate title to their own lands. The Statement of Protocol thus becomes the legal basis for the massive U.S. land theft from Mexicans in the conquered territories
1849 Smyrna (İzmir, Turkey): Naval force gains release of a U.S. businessman seized by Austrian officials
1849 The Hounds European vigilante group in San Francisco attacks Chilean miner community, raping women, burning houses, and lynching two men.
1850 The California legislature passes the foreign miners tax which requires Chinese and Latin American gold miners to pay special tax on their holdings tax not required of European American miners
1850 California legislature passes an act legalizing indentured servitude of children under guise of apprenticeship. Children can be taken from parents, given food, clothing and shelter in exchanged for “learning work at a trade” with no pay
1851 Turkish coast – clash with Ottoman Empire
1851 Johanns Island (east of Africa): Forces from the U.S. invade to protect U.S. business man
1852–53 Argentina: Marines land & occupy Buenos Aires to protect U.S. interests during a revolution
1853 Nicaragua: US forces land to protect U.S.A. lives and interests during political disturbances
1853–54 Japan: Commodore Perry and his expedition make “displays” of naval & marine military might leading to the "opening of Japan."
1853–54 Ryūkyū and Bonin Islands (Japan) Commodore Perry lands in the Islands with the purpose of securing facilities for commerce.
1854 China: U.S. and English ships land forces to protect U.S. interests in and near Shanghai during Chinese civil strife.
1854 Nicaragua: Naval forces bombard and burn San Juan del Norte (Greytown) to avenge a perceived insult to the U.S. Minister to Nicaragua.
1855 China: U.S. forces protect U.S. interests in Shanghai and fight resistance near Hong Kong.
1855 Fiji Islands: Naval force lands & occupies to protect U.S. & business interests
1855 Uruguay: U.S. and European naval forces land to protect U.S. interests during an attempted revolution in Montevideo.
1856 Panama, Republic of New Grenada: U.S. forces land to protect U.S. interests during an insurrection.
1856 China: U.S. forces land to protect U.S. interests at Canton
1857 U.S. Supreme Court in the Dred Scott Decision upholds Constitution that specifically excludes black people from its rights of citizenship and that no African has rights that a white man is bound to respect
1857 Nicaragua: U.S. forces occupy from April to May, November to December.
1857 300-400 California Indians massacred in Petaluma under the excuse that someone took cow.
1858 Uruguay: Forces from two United States warships land to protect U.S. property during a revolution in Montevideo.
1858 Fiji Islands: Marine expedition enacts “justice” on Indigenous peoples for the murder of two U.S. citizens
1859 Paraguay: Congress authorizes naval squadron to seek redress for an attack on a naval vessel in the Paraná River during 1855.
1859 Mexico: 200 U.S. soldiers cross Rio Grande in pursuit of Mexican nationalist Juan Cortina
1859 China: A naval force lands to protect U.S. interests in Shanghai.
1860 200 Indians massacred in Eureka. One white man boasts of killing 60 Indian infants with his hatchet
1860 Angola, Portuguese west Africa: naval ships to protect U.S. business interests
1860 Columbia, Bay of Panama: U.S. troops arrive to squelch revolution & protect U.S. business interests
1862 During the height of the Civil War, Congress passes the Homestead Act - specifically excluding Indians, Blacks & non-European immigrants -giving away over 50 million acres of Indian land in 160 acre bundles to any white person who pays $1.25 an acre and will cultivate it for 5 years; an additional 100 million acres of Indian land are given free to railroads
1862 California legislature passes law “to protect free white labor against competition with “Chinese coolie labor” and to discourage the immigration of the Chinese into the state of California”
1863 The famous Emancipation Proclamation declared by President Lincoln provides that slaves from the confederate states are legally free but slaves from the union states Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, and Maryland are specifically exempted from the act. In other words, slaves were freed in the new Confederate Nation over which the proclamation had no legal power whatsoever; but slavery would continue in the Union
1863 Japan: Naval Battle of Shimonoseki
1864 The U.S. army massacres 300 Cheyenne Indians in the infamous Sand Creek Massacre. U.S. army general Chivington explains his actions: “I have come to kill Indians and believe it is right and honorable to use any means under god’s heaven to kill Indians”
1864 Japan: U.S. & European forces combine to force Japan to concede shipping rights on Shimonoseki Straits
1865 The famous 13th Amendment abolishing slavery is passed but it contains the little known provision: “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the united states”. In other words the 13th Amendment lays the basis for slavery of imprisoned people, the disproportionate number of whom would be and are peoples of color
1865 President Andrew Johnson overturns General Sherman’s Field Order 15 which had granted thousands of acres of confiscated plantation land to freed people in South Carolina and Georgia, and begins to dismantle Black army units that are protecting the freed peoples’ new lands and communities. General Howard tells Black landholders on the Sea Islands that they must return their lands to the plantation owners and go to work for them!
1865 Defeated southern states pass Black Codes, newer versions of the old Slave Codes
1865 Legislation establishing Freedmen’s Bureau specifically refuses to confiscate land from political and military planter leadership of the Confederacy and give the land to the freed people. Instead limited amounts of already abandoned land is made available. Freed people are allowed to lease up to 40 acres for three years at 1860 prices when land value was highest. Most land goes to speculators. Freed peoples establish some cooperatives to buy and work the land but these cooperatives are focus targets of white vigilantes including KKK
1865 Thomas Catron, leader of the Santa Fe Ring, arrives in New Mexico. The Ring, composed of Anglo merchants, politicians, bankers, land speculators, ranchers, lawyers and judges, rules New Mexico for two decades. The Ring uses U.S. law and vigilante terror to take away most of the lands of native Mexicans
1865 Panama: Forces land to protect U.S. business & lives as people try to revolt
1866 Mexico: state of Tamaulipas, soldiers land & occupy
1866 Ku Klux Klan is organized and the massacre of thousands of Black people begins
1866 China: U.S. forces land to punish assault on U.S.A.. consol
1867 Formosa (island of Taiwan): U.S. forces land
1867 Nicaragua: Marines occupy Managua and Leon
1868 Japan: Forces land to protect U.S. interests
1868 Uruguay: Forces land protect U.S.A. lives & business interests against ‘insurrection’
1868 Columbia: Forces protect U.S.A. business interests and U.S.A. lives
1870 Mexico: Forces destroy ship
1870 Hawaii: Forces hang U.S.A. flag when queen dies
1871 White mob in Los Angeles attacks Chinese community, killing 19 and destroying the community
1871 Korea to punish ‘natives’ resisting U.S. takeover
1871 U.S. army massacres Apache Indians at Camp Grant
1872-74 U.S. government permits white traders to slaughter buffalo in order to rid plains of Indians. In this three year period 370,000 buffalo are killed and by 1874 the powers of Plains Indians, Cheyenne, Kiowa, and Comanche are destroyed
1873 Panama, Colombia Bay: Troops land to protect U.S.A. citizens and business interests during ‘hostilities’
1873-79 Mexico: Forces cross into Mexico repeatedly
1874 Hawaii: Forces land to protect U.S. business interests
1876 Mexico: Troops police town of Matamoros
1877 Crazy Horse of Sioux Nation killed, Sioux driven out of Nebraska to a barren reservation on Missouri River
1877 Haves Tilden Compromise removes federal troops from the south leaving Blacks totally unprotected from white violence. Reconstruction officially ends. The Southern economy is still based on Black labor, now called sharecropping, form of agricultural semi-slavery. Northern industries, banks and merchants are the main economic beneficiaries of the sharecropping system, beginning 50 years of intense repression and denial of all
political, civil, educational rights that African Americans had struggled for and won to some extent during reconstruction
1877 White mob ransacks Chinatown, burning homes and shops, killing and maiming unknown numbers of Chinese people
1882 Egypt: Forces land to protect U.S.A. business interests
1882 Congress enacts the Chinese Exclusion Act preventing Chinese immigrant workers from coming to the U.S. In this act, the Chinese become the first nationality to be barred expressly by name
1882-1900 3011 recorded lynchings of African Americans, primarily but not exclusively in the South. In reality there were many more but they are not recorded
1885 Panama: Forces guard the extradition of ‘valuables’ along railroad lines
1885 Whites riot against Chinese in Rock Springs, Wyoming and kill 28, wound more, and drive others from their homes
1886 Apache warrior Geronimo surrenders to the U.S. army. His surrender marks the defeat of Southwest Indian Nations
1887 Congress passes the Dawes Land Allotment Act which divides reservations into individual plots of land and expressly forbids communal land ownership. Men get 160 acres, women and children less. Unused land could be sold to whites. As a result, Indians lose 100 million acres - nearly 2/3rds of their holdings at the time. The greatest beneficiaries are the railroads. Money from land sales goes to put up “Indian” boarding schools in which Indian children are forced to give up their homes, culture and religion and are forced to adopt the white mans ways
1887 The Supreme Court decides in favor of the Maxwell Company Division of the Santa Fe Ring (see entry for 1865) in allotting 1,714,765 acres of Mexican and Indian land in New Mexico to the Anglo corporation
1888 The Scott Act prohibits the immigration of Chinese laborers: only merchants, professionals, and travelers are permitted to come from China
1888 Korea: Naval force protect U.S.A. lives and business interests during uprising
1888 Haiti: U.S. military lands to protect U.S.A. business interests
1888-89 Samoa: Troops occupy
1889 Hawaii: Troops lead rebellion against Hawaiians by U.S.A. colonizers
1890 Three hundred Sioux Indians are massacred by the U.S. army at Wounded Knee. The massacre marks the end of the 19th century struggle of the Plains Indians to keep their lands safe from white invaders, their people and their way of life alive
1890 Argentina: A naval party lands to protect U.S. consulate and U.S. lives in Buenos Aires.
1891 Haiti: US forces defeat Black revolt as they “protect” U.S. lives and property on Navassa Island.
1891 Bering Strait: Naval forces patrol.
1891 Chile: Marines class with nationalist rebels.
1892 Idaho: Army suppresses Homestead silver miners’ strike after Pinkertons (private army) were called in, leaving 16 dead, 27-47 wounded
1892 Lynch mob in Santa Ana California hangs Mexican worker Francisco Torres after taking him from the Santa Ana jail. They hang sign around the dead mans neck which says “change of venue”
1893 In Paris, Texas an African American man named Henry Smith is tortured with red hot irons and burned alive. White school children are given the day off as a holiday so they can witness the murder. Railroads run special excursions to the lynch site. The lynch mob fights over Henry Smith’s bones, teeth and buttons for souvenirs
1893 Hawaii - Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii is overthrown by U.S. planter colonists in bloodless revolution. The Republic of Hawaii is established with Stanford Dole, Dole pineapples, as president
1894 Brazil: A display of naval force sought to protect U.S. commerce and shipping at Rio de Janeiro during a Brazilian civil war.
1894 Nicaragua: Army occupation of Bluefield to protect U.S. interests during a revolution.
1894 Chicago: Army breaks rail strike, 34 killed
1894–95 China: Marines occupy Tientsin and penetrate to Peking for U.S.A. protection purposes during the First Sino-Japanese War.
1894–96 Korea: A guard of marines occupy Seoul to protect the U.S. legation and U.S. lives and interests during and following the Sino-Japanese War.
1895 Colombia (Panama): U.S. forces protect U.S. interests during resistance by locals.
1895-96 Venezuela: Forces land & occupy to protect U.S. interests.
1896 Nicaragua: U.S. forces land in Corinto during political unrest to protect U.S.A. business interests
1896 In Plessy v. Ferguson, the Supreme Court declares separate but equal facilities to be constitutional
1898 Nicaragua: US forces protect U.S. lives and property at San Juan del Sur.
1898 Spanish-American War On April 25, 1898, the United States declares war with Spain.
1898-? Guam: Forces seize from Spain, military occupation still until today
1898-? Puerto Rico: Forces seize from Spain, military occupation still until today
1898 Minnesota: army battles Chippewa
1898-1902 Cuba: U.S. troops occupy, seize from Spain, build base operating to this day
1898–99 Samoa: Second Samoan Civil War with U.S. and other Europeans fighting for control
1898–99 China: US & European forces fight nationalists & occupy.
1899 Nicaragua: U.S. and British naval forces land to protect U.S. national interests at San Juan del Norte, and to defeat insurgency
1899–1913: Philippine Islands: US forces go to war against the Philippines, defeat Filipino revolutionaries seeking immediate national independence, killing 600,000 Filipinos
1899-1901 Idaho: army occupies Coeur d’Alene mining region
1900 Congress passes the Foraker Act: The U.S. establishes colonial government in Puerto Rico in which the U.S. appoints the governor and executive council
1900 China: Boxer Rebellion U.S.A. troops participate in operations to protect foreign lives & squelch rebellion during the Boxer uprising, particularly at Peking, leaving a permanent occupying force
1901 Colombia (State of Panama): US forces protect U.S. property on the Isthmus and keep transit lines open for U.S. business during serious revolutionary disturbances
1901 Oklahoma: Army battles Creek Indian revolt
1902 Colombia: US forces protect U.S.A. lives and property at Bocas del Toro during a civil war.
1902 Colombia (Panama): U.S.A. places armed guards on all trains crossing the Isthmus to keep the railroad line open to U.S. business, and stations naval ships on both sides of Panama to prevent the landing of Colombian troops.
1903 Honduras: US forces intervene against revolution.
1903 Dominican Republic: A detachment of marines land to protect U.S. interests in the city of Santo Domingo and squelch revolutionary outbreak.
1903 Syria: US forces protect U.S. business interest in Beirut when a local Muslim uprising is feared.
1903–04 Abyssinia (Ethiopia): Marines sent to Abyssinia to protect the U.S. Consul General
1903–14 Panama: US forces protect U.S.A. interests and lives in order to separate the Isthmian Canal from Columbia and form the new country of Panama.
1904 Dominican Republic: U.S. and British naval forces establish a “Green Zone” for U.S. and Europeans & their interests during revolutionary fighting.
1904 Tangier, Morocco: Marines land to protect the consul general.
1904 Panama: U.S forces protect U.S. lives and property during a threatened insurrection.
1904–05 Korea: A guard of Marines was sent to protect the U.S.A. interests in Seoul during the Russo-Japanese War.
1905 San Francisco school board segregates Chinese, Korean, and Japanese students
1906–09 Cuba: US marines land in democratic election to protect U.S. interests and re-establish a non-elected government after revolutionary activity.
1907 Honduras: Forces land to protect U.S. interests during a war between Honduras and Nicaragua
1907 Nicaragua: Marines land to set up “dollar diplomacy” protectorate.
1908 The U.S. limits the number of Japanese immigrants to the U.S.
1908 Panama: Marines intervene in election contest to protect U.S. interests
1910 Nicaragua: Marines occupy Nicaragua to protect U.S.A. business interests.
1911 Honduras: Naval & troops land to protect USA lives and interests during a civil war
1911 – 1941 China: Continuous naval & marine occupation with flare-ups. 1927, the US had 5,670 troops occupying in China and 44 naval vessels in its waters; in 1933 the U.S. had 3,027 armed men.
1912: Honduras: Force lands to prevent nationalization of U.S.A.-owned railroad companies.
1912 Panama: Marines land during election
1912 Liberia: Army lands to train & arm Liberian Frontier Force, the counter-freedom fighters
1912 Cuba: U.S. forces swell to protect U.S.A. interests during revolution
1912 China: US forces swell to protect U.S. lives & interests during the Xinhai Revolution.
1912 Turkey: U.S. forces guard the USA lives & interests at Constantinople during the First Balkan War
1912–33 Nicaragua: 20 years of U.S.A. occupation and war against freedom guerillas
1913 Mexico: Marines land to evacuate U.S. citizens during Mexican Revolution
1913 The California legislature passes law making it very difficult for Japanese immigrants to lease land
1914 Colorado: Army breaks miners strike
1914 Dominican Republic: Marines fight with rebels for control of Santa Domingo
1914 – 1934 Haiti: 20 years of military occupation, defeating revolts and protecting US business interests.
1914–17 Mexico: Series of interventions against nationalists
1915 Texas: Federal soldiers crush Mexican-American uprising “Plan of San Diego”
1916 China: Forces land to quell a riot taking place on U.S. property in Nanking.
1916–24 Dominican Republic: 8 year Marine & naval occupation to squash insurrection.
1917 White mobs massacre 39 African Americans in riot in East St Louis, Missouri
1917 China: Troops land at Chungking to protect U.S. lives during a political crisis.
1917 The Jones act makes Puerto Ricans U.S. citizens and subject to the draft just in time to fight in world war
1917 Congress enacts another Immigration Act which creates an Asiatic barred zone line in the sand in Asia from which immigration was banned: the line cut off all immigrants from India
1917–18 World War I: US declares war on Germany
1917–33 Cuba: Military occupation, made into economic protectorate.
1918–19 Mexico: U.S. soldiers battle Mexicans until Mexico surrenders in 1918.
1918–20 Panama: US forces occupy, providing “police duty” during “unrest” following elections
1918–22 Russia (Soviet Union): U.S. troops land many times to fight Bolsheviks and try to overthrow revolution
1919 Dalmatia (Croatia, Yugoslavia): Marines land to intervene against Serbs.
1919 Turkey: Marines land to guard the US Consulate.
1919 During Red Summer - so named because of all the blood that flowed - white mobs attack Black communities in Omaha, Washington, Knoxville, and Chicago. Black people, especially returning veterans, fight back. In Chicago police participate in the riot against the Black community and white labor leaders help to organize the white mobs
1919 Honduras: Marines land during attempted revolution and elections.
1920 China: Marines land to protect U.S. lives & businesses.
1920 Guatemala: Troops land to intervene against unionists.
1920-21 West Virginia: Army intervenes against mineworkers.
1920–22 Russia (Siberia): Marine guard sent to protect the U.S. radio station & business interests
1921 Panama: Naval squadrons demonstrate on both sides of the Isthmus to protect U.S. interests
1921 Costa Rica: Naval squadrons demonstrate on both sides of the Isthmus to protect U.S. interests
1922 Turkey: A landing force was sent ashore to fight nationalists & to protect U.S. lives and property
1922 Citing the 1790 Naturalization Act the Supreme Court holds that Japanese immigrants are not eligible for citizenship
1922–23 China: Marine force increases several times to protect U.S. during nationalist revolt.
1923 Federal officials, under the leadership of newly appointed federal investigator Edgar Hoover, arrest and imprison Marcus Garvey for mail fraud. Four years later, when Garvey is released from prison, the U.S. deports him, thus seriously undermining the largest African organization the world had seen to that day
1923 Mexico: U.S. military airpower defends Calles from rebellion
1924 Honduras: U.S. forces protect U.S.A. lives and interests during election hostilities.
1924 China: Marines increase forces to protect U.S.A. lives & business during
1924 The Johnson Reed Immigration Act sets restrictive quotas on immigrants from Asia, Africa, and Latin America; the Oriental Exclusion Act virtually bars all Asian immigration exempting Filipinos.
1925 China: U.S. forces land to protect lives and property in the International Settlement.
1925 Honduras: U.S. forces protect U.S. lives & interests during revolt
1925 Panama: Marines land to suppress general strike.
1926–33 Nicaragua: U.S. forces land and occupy intermittently to suppress revolution.
1926 China: Marines fight nationalists
1927-34 China: Increases in U.S. occupying troops to fight nationalists throughout the country.
1929 White mobs attack Filipinos in Exeter, California and injure 200
1930 U.S. deports 600,000 Mexicans, many of whom are U.S. citizens
1932 China: More U.S. forces land to protect U.S. interests during the Japanese occupation of Shanghai.
1932 El Salvador: Warships sent in during revolt
1932 Army squelches WWI veterans bonus protest
1933 Cuba: Naval forces surround island during a revolution
1934 The Tydings McDuffie Act grants independence to the Philippines and limits immigration to fifty persons per year. The act specifies that in 1946, when the independence process will be complete, all Filipinos will be excluded from the U.S. under the terms of the Oriental Exclusion Act
1934 China: Marines land to protect the U.S. Consulate.
1935 President Roosevelt signs the Repatriation Act which, offers free transportation to Filipinos who would return to their homeland
1935 The National Labor Relations Act, known as the Wagner Act, legalizes the right to organize and form unions but specifically excludes farm workers and domestic workers, most of whom are Chicano, Asian, and African American
1940 Newfoundland, Bermuda, St. Lucia, Bahamas, Jamaica, Antigua, Trinidad, and British Guiana: Troops sent to increase guard U.S. air and naval bases.
1941 Greenland: Greenland was taken under protection of the United States.
1941 Dutch Guiana (South America): Troops occupy Dutch Guiana, to protect aluminum ore supply from the bauxite mines in Suriname.
1941 Iceland: U.S. takes Iceland under the protection for strategic reasons.
1941 Germany: Navy patrols ship lanes to Europe, attacking German submarines, and begin providing aid to England
1941–45 World War II: U.S. declares war with Japan, Germany declares war against the United States.
1942 Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 authorizing internment of 110,000 Japanese Americans living in California including those who are U.S. citizens
1942 U.S. and Mexico agree to Bracero program which authorizes Mexicans to work temporarily in the U.S. and limits protection for these workers, virtually enslaving workers.
1943 Detroit: white mobs murder 34 African Americans; army puts down Black rebellion.
1943 White mobs in Los Angeles led by sailors and soldiers attack young Mexicans in Los Angeles in the infamous Zoot Suit Riots. Police arrest only Mexican youth, no Anglos
1943-44 Tunisia, Libya, Morocco, Liberia: U.S. forces land to occupy & build bases
1944–46 Philippines: Forces reoccupy Philippines in preparation for previously scheduled independence.
1945 Japan: Most cities fire bombed, atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima & Nagasaki
1945 China: In October 50,000 US Marines are sent to North China to assist Chinese Nationalist authorities in disarming and repatriating the Japanese in China and in controlling ports, railroads, and airfields. This is in addition to approximately 60,000 US forces remaining in China at the end of World War II.
1945–49 Germany: U.S. Military Occupation of part of Germany.
1945–55 Austria: U.S. Military Occupation of part of Austria.
1945–46 Italy: U.S. Military Occupation of part of Italy.
1945–52 Japan: U.S. Military Occupation of Japan.
1945–47 China: Marines are garrisoned in mainland China to oversee the removal of Soviet and Japanese forces after World War II.
1945–49 South Korea: U.S. Military occupation of South Korea & to fight North Korean insurgency in Republic of Korea
1945-70 Libya: U.S. troops build and occupy bomber base
1946 Trieste (Italy): U.S. occupation forces increase.
1946 Iran: With the threat of nuclear war, U.S. orders Soviet troops out of Iran.
1946 Yugoslavia: Naval forces threat nuclear attack as response to downed U.S. plane
1947 The Taft Hartley Act seriously restricts the rights to organize of all working people and especially targets workers of color by forcing unions to take an anti-Communist loyalty oath. Since leftists and Communists have been instrumental in organizing the Congress of Industrial Organizations, which had organized large numbers of workers of color, the loyalty oath seriously hampered future efforts to organize workers of color
1947 Uruguay: U.S. bombers deployed s show of strength during attempts at nationalizing business.
1947-49 Greece: US Marines land in Athens and direct operations of the extreme right in the re-establishment of monarchy and the arrest of Greek Communists.
1948 Palestine: Marine consular guard is sent to Jerusalem to protect the U.S. Consul General.
1948 Germany Berlin: U.S. uses atomic-capable bombers to guard Berlin Airlift after Soviet blockade.
1948–49 China: Marines are dispatched to protect & evacuate U.S.A. people in anticipation of Communist victory.
1948-54 Philippines: CIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.
1950 Puerto Rico: Marines & troops crush independence rebellion.
1950–53-? Korea & China: U.S. & South Korea fight North Korea & China to stalemate. At least 2 million Korean civilians dead or wounded. U.S. is still at war with Korea.
1950–55 Formosa (Taiwan): In June 1950 at the beginning of the Korean War, President Truman orders the U.S. Seventh Fleet to prevent Chinese Communist attacks upon Formosa and Chinese Nationalist operations against mainland China.
1952 The McCarran Walter Immigration Act repeals the exclusion from citizenship provisions of the 1790 Naturalization Act but keeps the quota system based on national origins; it bars from entry any travelers or immigrants the U.S. considers politically subversive and provides for deportation of any immigrants who challenge U.S. political or economic policies. The act gives extensive police interrogation powers to the INS and few protections to the interrogated. The INS powers are used extensively to prevent organization of Chicana and Asian workers in both fields and factories. Employers frequently call the INS to raid the work place and deport workers just before payday
1953 Iran: U.S. CIA backed coup ousts democratically elected Mosaddegh after he attempts to nationalize Iranian oil companies under British & U.S. control since 1913. U.S. re-installs the exiled Shah to power.
1954 US Immigration and Naturalization Service sets up Operation Wetback to round up and deport undocumented Mexicans living in the U.S.
1954 Vietnam: U.S. troops and military advisers sent to fight liberation forces fighting the French.
1954 Guatemala: CIA directs invasion after new government nationalizes U.S. United Fruit company & lands, troops occupy, build bomber bases, and re-steal lands.
1954–55 China: Naval units evacuate US civilians and military personnel from the Tachen Islands
1955 Vietnam: Official beginning of U.S. military deployment against Vietnam.
1956 Egypt: Marine battalion evacuates U.S. nationals and other persons from Alexandria during the Suez crisis when Soviets are ordered out of Suez.
1958 Lebanon: Army & Marine occupation against rebellion.
1958 Iraq: U.S. warns Iraq against invading Kuwait.
1958 China: U.S. orders China to leave Taiwan Isles alone.
1958 Panama: Protests erupt into confrontation with U.S. troops
1958-1965 Indonesia: 1 million killed in CIA-directed & military-supported army coup.
1959 Haiti: The U.S. military helps "Papa Doc" Duvalier become dictator of Haiti. He creates his own private police force, the "Tonton Macoutes", who terrorize the population with machetes. They will kill over 100,000 during the Duvalier family reign.
1959-60 Cuba: Covert & overt bombing, attempted assassinations, CIA directed invasion fails.
1959-75 Vietnam: US declares war on North Vietnam, killing 2.5 million people, firebombing/raking every single village/town in the country, longest U.S. war with atomic bomb threats in 1968 & 1969.
1960’S FBI under Edgar Hoover sets up the COINTELPRO - Counter Intelligence Program - to destroy the Black, American Indian, Puerto Rican, Mexican Liberation Movements. The program, although officially ended in the mid 70s, continues to this day under different names
1960-67 Congo: CIA back anti-liberation forces with air power, logistical support
1962 Thailand: Marines land to ensure Thailand doesn’t succumb to communists.
1962-75 Laos: Military buildup during guerrilla war, covert bombing missions, U.S. forces heavily back anti-communist forces.
1962 Cuba: Blockade and threat of nuclear retaliation against Soviet Union during Cuban Missile Crisis – near war with Soviet Union.
1963 Fannie Lou Hamer, courageous woman, freedom fighter, civil rights activist is severely beaten in Mississippi jail after she is arrested with 3 other women and one man for drinking from a “whites only” fountain.
1963 Iraq: CIA organizes coup that assassinates president, brings Ba’ath party to power, and U.S. ally Saddam Hussein back from exile to head secret service.
1964 Congo (Zaire): U.S. supports counter-revolutionary troops suppressing liberation struggles.
1964 Panama: Panamanians shot for urging the return of the canal to Panama’s control.
1964 The Democratic Party refuses to seat the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party in place of the segregationist Mississippi Democrats at the party’s National Convention in Atlanta and President Johnson interrupts nationalized television coverage so Fannie Lou Hamer so her views will not be televised!
1965 Dominican Republic: 20,000 U.S. troops invade to fight communist & popular liberation forces, and support right-wing military regime.
1965 Malcolm X assassinated after FBI infiltrates the Nation of Islam to promote opposition to Malcolm X
1965 The Immigration Act of 1965 liberalizes immigration for peoples of Asia, Latin America, and Africa but subsequent implementation of the law ties immigration procedures directly to foreign policy: if the nation has a progressive or leftist government, nationals from that country are welcome to the U.S. as political refugees: i.e. Cuba, Vietnam, and Nicaragua before 1989. If the nation is reactionary or is a military dictatorship supported by the U.S., people fleeing political repression are denied refugee status and deported: i.e. Salvadorans, Guatemalans, and Haitians. This discriminatory policy has aggravated political tensions within the affected immigrant communities and weakened their capacity to fight racist practices against all immigrants of color in the U.S.
1965 The Moynihan report blames the problems of the Black community on strong Black women
1966-69 Guatemala: Green Berets intervene against liberation rebels.
1967 Detroit: Army battles African Americans, killing 43.
1967 Israel: U.S. greatly increases military aide and logistical support prior to 6 Day War
1967 Congo (Zaire): The United States sends three military transport aircraft with crews to provide the Congo central government with logistical support during a revolt.
1968 Martin Luther King is assassinated, 21,000 soldiers sent to cities across the U.S. to squelch rebellions
1968-69 Mayor Alioto of San Francisco creates the infamous tactical squad to launch military attacks against the Third World Liberation Front strikers at San Francisco State University
1968 Cambodia & Laos: U.S. starts secret bombing campaign against targets along the Ho Chi Minh trail in the sovereign nations of Cambodia and Laos.
1969 Reies Tijerina, leader of militant Chicano Movement to retake Indigenous Mexican lands, is imprisoned for three years in federal penitentiary: the Supreme Court upholds the conviction
1969-1972 Raids on Black Panther Party offices, assassination of leading panthers, imprisonment of hundreds of others, FBI agents incitement of internal fratricidal struggle resulting in destruction of the Black Panther Party. Many prisoners from that time such as Geronimo Pratt are still in prison
1970-75 Cambodia: The CIA overthrows Prince Norodom Sihanouk, who is highly popular among Cambodians for keeping them out of the Vietnam War. He is replaced by CIA puppet Lon Nol, who immediately throws Cambodian troops into battle. Over 2 million people are murdered, starvation and suffering reigns.
1970 Los Angeles: at march of 30,000 Chicanos in Los Angeles, police kill famous Chicano journalist Ruben Salazar
1970 Oman: Marines land to direct Marine invasion into Iran, bolstering the counterinsurgency program.
1971 State of New York launches military assault on striking prisoners at Attica State Prison. The attacks kills 28 prisoners and hostages when the prison is retaken by guards, hundreds more prisoners are beaten and tortured
1971 Mexico, Central & South America: Nixon initiates “War on Drugs”, receives military backing to invade especially Mexico, Central and South American countries, incarcerate especially U.S. citizens of color.
1971-73 Laos: U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion, carpet-bombs countryside.
1972 North Vietnam: Christmas bombing of Hanoi and Haiphong by B-52 bombers with “only”1600 casualties.
1973 Afghanistan: U.S. send military aid to tribal factions to assist in the overthrow of the liberal king & queen of Afghanistan
1973 Israel: U.S. delivers weapons and supplies to Israel during the Yom Kippur War.
1973 South Dakota: federal and state police and FBI launch military assault on American Indian Movement activists and traditional Indians of the Lakota Nation at Wounded Knee. Leonard Peltier, AIM leader, is convicted on false charges of murdering an FBI agent and sentenced to two consecutive life sentences
1973 Chile: CIA-backed coup ousts & assassinates democratically elected Marxist President Allende
1974 Cyprus: U.S. naval forces evacuate U.S. civilians during the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
1975 Vietnam: President Ford reports U.S. naval vessels, helicopters, and Marines sent to assist in evacuation of refugees and US nationals from Vietnam.
1975 Cambodia: President Ford reports U.S. military forces proceed with the evacuation of U.S. citizens & military from Cambodia.
1975 South Vietnam: U.S. concedes defeat & evacuates U.S. citizens and Vietnamese sympathizers.
1976 Congress passes Hyde Amendment denying federal funds for abortions to poor women, disproportionately denying women of color the right to control when they will have children
1976 Lebanon: Naval vessels evacuate U.S.A personnel.
1976-92 Angola: CIA assists South African-backed anti-liberation forces.
1976 Korea: Additional forces sent to Korea after two U.S. soldiers in the demilitarized zone, allegedly “cutting down a tree”, were killed by North Korean soldiers
mid 1970s Right wing groups in California begin to use the initiative process effectively to get racist legislation approved: most important is Proposition 13 which lowers tax rate on homes thereby robbing cities of funding for schools, parks, social services, and infrastructure. People of color are it disproportionately effected.
1978 Zaire (Congo): U.S. utilizes military transport aircraft to provide logistical support to Belgian and France during liberation revolution
1978 In the famous Bakke case the Supreme Court finds unconstitutional University of California at Davis Medical School program of racial quotas to implement Affirmative Action – setting aside 16 out of 100 places for non-white students - thus effectively gutting Affirmative Action in higher education and elsewhere.
1978 Right wing forces use the initiative process to get the California death penalty reinstated
1978 Ronald Reagan is elected to office on a clear ideological program appealing to white supremacist traditional values. Reagan popularizes racist code words terms which do not mention color specifically but are designed to elicit negative images of different peoples of color such as crime, welfare, drugs, get government off our backs and stop unfairly taxing the little man. The ideological attack of the Reagan administration is backed up by massive cutbacks in social services for poor people and government-sponsored redistribution of wealth to the rich.
1979-?? Nicaragua: Marxist Sandinistas take control of government, with commitment to land and anti-poverty reform. CIA-backs Contras in guerrilla war against the Sandinista government throughout the 1980s.
1979 Afghanistan: U.S. seeks out and heavily funds the most fundamentalist religious fanatics in June to fight progressive movement in Afghanistan, attempting and succeeding at triggering Soviet Union military intervention several months later
1980 Iran: Raid to rescue U.S. hostages fail with copter-plane crash, Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.
1980 El Salvador: The Archbishop of San Salvador, Oscar Romero, pleads with President Carter "Christian to Christian" to stop aiding the military government slaughtering his people. Carter refuses. Shortly afterwards, right-wing leader Roberto D’Aubuisson has Romero shot through the heart while saying Mass.
1980 Sinai: U.S. Army and Air Force units arrive to train with Egyptians
1981-90 Nicaragua: CIA directs Contra invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.
1981-92 El Salvador: After a peasant-led guerrilla offensive against the U.S. supported military dictatorship, additional US military troops assist in training government forces in counterinsurgency. The country soon dissolves into civil war, with the peasants in the hills fighting against the U.S. military-backed government. By 1992, over 75,000 Salvadorans will be killed.
1981 Libya: Two Libyan jets shot down by U.S. military during maneuvers over waters off Libya coast
1982 Sinai: U.S. military personnel and equipment deployed to participate in the Multinational Force and Observers in the Sinai.
1982 Unemployed auto workers in Detroit murder Vincent Chin, mistaking the young Chinese American man for Japanese American and blaming theJapanese for the loss of their jobs. Some unions initiate the “Buy America” Campaign, which targets workers of color in other countries as responsible for their economic plight rather than U.S. mult-inationals who have taken their factories to Mexico, Taiwan, and Korea where they can promote slave labor and terrible environmental practices.
1982 Lebanon: 800 Marines sent to serve in the multinational force to remove PLO forces
1982–83 Lebanon: 1200 marines deployed to serve in a temporary multinational force to facilitate the restoration of Lebanese government sovereignty
1983 Egypt: U.S. dispatches AWACS electronic surveillance planes to Egypt.
1983 Chad: U.S. troops provide air and ground support for anti-liberation troops against rebels assisting Libyan forces.
1983-84 Grenada: U.S. invasion to halt of Soviet and Cuban influence and alignment with the Soviets and Cuba.
1983–89 Honduras: U.S. military maneuvers help build bases near borders for death squads.
1984 Iran: U.S. shoots down two Iranian jets over Persian Gulf.
1985 Italy: US Navy pilots intercept an Egyptian airliner, forcing it to land in Sicily. The airliner was carrying the hijackers who had allegedly killed a U.S. citizen during the hijacking.
1985 Philadelphia, Pa: Police helicopter drops bomb, kills 11 Black revolutionaries, destroys entire block.
mid 1980 The Heritage Foundation organizes the National Association of Scholars and finances college campus right wing groups to wage an ideological attack on students and faculty struggling for curriculum more reflective of the histories and cultures of people of color and of the hidden history of the U.S. The right wing groups label such educational equality efforts as “political correctness”, while liberals attack multi-culturalism, feminism, and afro-centrism as divisive perspectives in the U.S. melting pot mythology.
1986 Rose Bird, first and only woman Chief Justice of the California Supreme Court until 2011, is recalled through the initiative process used by misogynists, right wing pro-death penalty forces
1986 Libya: Air strikes in an attempt to topple nationalist government and assassinate Qaddafi
1986 Bolivia: Army assists raids on allegedly cocaine-growing region in anti-drug operations..
1986 Haiti: Rising popular revolt in Haiti means that "Baby Doc" Duvalier will remain "President for Life" only if he has a short one. However, violence keeps the country in political turmoil for another four years. The CIA tries to strengthen the military by creating the National Intelligence Service (SIN), which suppresses popular revolt through torture and assassination.
1987 Iran: U.S. naval forces attack 2 Iranian oil platforms in the Persian Gulf.
1987-88 Iran: U.S. intervenes on side of Iraq in war against Iran in order to maintain oil domination
1987–88 Persian Gulf: Special Operations Command protects U.S. -flagged oil tankers from Iranian attack during the Iran-Iraq War.
1988 Iran: U.S. naval forces retaliate for the Iranian mining of the Persian Gulf and the subsequent damage to a U.S. warship.
1988 Honduras: Emergency deployment of U.S. troops to Honduras to respond to liberation actions by the forces of the (then socialist) Nicaraguans.
1988 Iran: USS Vincennes shots down Iranian passenger Jet Air Flight 655
1988 Panama: Additional military sent in to fortify U.S. interests in canal
1989 Libya: Two Libyan jet shot down by U.S. forces.
1989 Panama: U.S. invades Panama to overthrow a dictator of its own making, General Manuel Noriega. Noriega has been on the CIA's payroll since 1966, and has been transporting drugs with the CIA's knowledge since 1972.
1989 Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru: Military enters these countries to focus on “war on drugs”, and special forces teams train local troops in efficient ways to kill their own people.
1989 Philippines: U.S. military and air strikes assist Aquino government to repel a coup attempt.
1989 Virgin Islands: Army quells Black unrest in St. Croix and protects U.S. business interests.
1989 Serbia: 78 days of NATO air strikes.
1989–90 Panama: 27,000 more U.S. military troops enter Panama, ousting nationalist government, killing over 2000 people, capturing, CIA puppet General Manuel Noriega, and bringing him to the U.S.
1990 Liberia: U.S. military and private contractors sent to protect U.S. business interests & people.
1990 Congress passes the U.S. Immigration Act of 1990, a comprehensive new immigration law which includes employer sanctions for knowingly hiring workers without papers and stepped up military patrol of the Rio Grande border. The law’s effect is to discourage employers from accepting job applications from Asian Americans or Latinos for fear they may have no papers. At the border, brutality against Latino border crossers becomes commonplace, vigilante groups support INS patrols. The Federation for U.S. Immigration Reform (FAIR) based in California uses the new law to expand its anti-immigrant campaign. ccommon theme is that immigrant labor takes away jobs from needy U.S.A. workers. Tthe campaign aggravates existing tensions among different communities of color as well as increasing racist behavior by white workers
1990 Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel, Oman: 540,000 troops deployed to defend Saudi Arabia & U.S. business interests in the Middle East, after Iraq invades Kuwait. U.S. hostages held in Iran.
1990-91 Iraq: Bush initiates war against Iraq which destroys the country’s infrastructure of electricity, food and water supply, leaving over 1,210 000 civilians dead or dying in its wake. The war is accompanied by massive anti-Arab propaganda campaign. In the u.S. supporters of Bush’s policies murder one Arab American in California, vandalize hundreds of Arab American businesses and send death threats to Arab American organizations. The FBI terrorizes Arab American citizens by targeting them for surveillance and questioning
1991 Kuwait: U.S. troops invade and restore Kuwait royal family to throne, toppling Iraq invasion.
1991–1996 Iraq: U.S. provides humanitarian relief and military protection for Kurds fleeing their homes in northern Iraq during the 1991 uprising.
1991 Zaire: U.S. military provides support for Belgian & French troops suppressing rebellion.
1991 KKK leader David Duke wins 55% of the white vote in Louisiana though massive black turnout prevents his being elected governor on his platform of turning in his white sheet in for a blue suit and utilizing racist code words.
1991-2003 Iraq: Constant U.S. air strikes & naval enforced economic sanctions end up killing and starving to death 500,000 children.
1992 California’s Governor Wilson initiates “welfare reform” legislation which would reduce poor families to homelessness and starvation. He calls the program a budget balancing measure
1992 Sierra Leone: Troops evacuate U.S. and other foreigners after revolution.
1992 Los Angeles: Army, marines deployed against anti-police uprising.
1992 Kuwait: U.S. begins a series of military exercises in Kuwait, following Iraqi refusal to recognize a new border drawn up by the United Nations an alleged refusal to cooperate with UN inspection teams.
1992–1996 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Naval blockade of Serbia and Montenegro
1992–2003 Iraq: Iraqi no-fly zones: The U.S., United Kingdom, and it's Gulf War allies declare and enforce "no-fly zones" over the majority of sovereign Iraqi airspace, prohibiting Iraqi flights in zones in southern Iraq and northern Iraq, and conducting aerial reconnaissance and bombings.
1992–1995 Somalia: U.S. armed forces deploy to Somalia to lead UN occupation during civil war, thousands killed in raids conducted against one Mogadishu faction.
1992 The Democratic Party restructures itself as the party of the white middle class women and men after clearly absorbing the lesson that since 1964 it has not won the majority of the white vote in any presidential election
1993-1995 Bosnia: U.S. and NATO forces enforce the no-fly zone over the Bosnian airspace, prohibit all unauthorized flights and take all necessary measures to ensure compliance with the no-fly regulations, and bomb Serbs.
1993 Macedonia: troops deployed to help ‘stabilize’ area.
1994: Bosnia: U.S. jets shoots down four of six Bosnian airplanes for violating UN mandated no-fly zone.
1994–1995 Haiti: U.S. embargo enacted, then 20,000 U.S. military troops deployed Operation “Uphold Democracy”
1994 Macedonia: increase of U.S. occupying troops.
1995 Bosnia: Intense air campaign along with a combined allied ground force of Muslim and Croatian Army against Serb positions Operation “Deliberate Force”.
1996 Liberia: Clinton orders U.S. military to evacuate U.S. citizens & 3rd country nationals due to the "deterioration of the security situation and the resulting threat to U.S. citizens"
1996 Central African Republic: Clinton deploys U.S. military personnel to evacuate "private U.S. citizens and certain U.S. government employees", and to provide "enhanced security for the U.S. Embassy.
1996 Bosnia: U.S. and NATO forces replace the IFOR
1997 Albania: U.S. military forces evacuate certain U.S. government employees and private U.S. citizens
1997 Congo and Gabon: Clinton deploys a standby evacuation force of U.S. military to provide “enhanced security” and to be available for any necessary evacuation operation.
1997 Sierra Leone: U.S. military personnel deployed to prepare for and undertake the evacuation of certain U.S. government employees and private U.S. citizens
1997 Cambodia: Force of about 550 U.S. military personnel are deployed for “security”
1998 Iraq: U.S. and British forces conduct a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets.
1998 Guinea-Bissau: Clinton deploys a show of military force and a standby evacuation force of U.S. military personnel to Dakar, Senegal, to evacuate from the city of Bissau.
1998–1999 Kenya and Tanzania: U.S. military personnel were deployed to coordinate the medical and disaster assistance related to the bombing of the U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania.
1998 Afghanistan: Clinton orders a cruise missile attack against two suspected terrorist training camps in Afghanistan
1998 Sudan: Clinton orders cruise missile attacks against a suspected chemical factory in Sudan
1998 Liberia: Force deployed a stand-by response and evacuation force of 30 U.S. military personnel to increase the security force at the U.S. Embassy in Monrovia.
1999 East Timor: U.S. military forces deployed to occupy East Timor with the United Nations-mandated International Force
1999 Serbia: U.S. and NATO aircraft begin a major bombing of Serbia and Serb positions in Kosovo
2000 Sierra Leone: US Navy patrol craft deployed to Sierra Leone to support evacuation operations from that country if needed.
2000 Yemen: Military personnel deployed to Aden.
2000 East Timor: U.S. military personnel deployed to support the United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET).
2001 China: On April 1, 2001, a mid-air collision between a United States Navy EP-3E ARIES II signals surveillance aircraft and a People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) J-8II interceptor fighter jet resulted in an international dispute between the United States and the People's Republic of China called the Hainan Island incident.
2001 Afghanistan: US Armed Forces invade Afghanistan under cover of 9/11 attack
2002 Yemen: Drone attacks by MQ-1 Predator
2002 Philippines: Combat-equipped and combat support forces deployed to the Philippines to train with, assist and advise the Philippines' Armed Forces in enhancing their "counterterrorist capabilities."
2002 Côte d'Ivoire: In response to a rebellion in Côte d'Ivoire, US military personnel assist in the evacuation of U.S. citizens
2003–2011 Iraq: U.S. invades Iraq in order to disarm Iraq
2003 Liberia: U.S. Marines deployed during Second Liberian Civil War to help secure the US Embassy in and to aid in any necessary evacuation from either Liberia or Mauritania.
2003 Georgia and Djibouti: Combat equipped and support forces deployed to Georgia and Djibouti to help in enhancing their "counterterrorist capabilities."
2004 Haiti: U.S. sends combat equipped military personnel to depose democratically elected President Aristide and to protect U.S. citizens and property in light.
2004 Georgia, Djibouti, Kenya, Ethiopia, Yemen, and Eritrea: U.S. counter-terrorism military activities
2004–present Pakistan: Drone attacks begin
2005–06 Pakistan: President Bush deploys troops to provide Humanitarian relief to far remote villages in the Kashmir mountain ranges of Pakistan stricken by a massive earthquake
2006 Lebanon:. Marines begin evacuation of US citizens willing to leave the country in the face of a likely ground invasion by Israel
2007 Somalia: Ariel and drone strikes on suspected Al-Qaeda operatives and Islamic fighters
2008 Georgia: U.S. forces assist aide & transport Georgian forces from Iraq during the conflict, providing training & weapons.
2009 Pakistan: Drone attacks drastically increase under President Obama
2009 Venezuela: Surveillance drones enter Venezuela air space many times to show of force
2010-11 Iraq: War becomes Operation New Dawn from Operation Iraqi Freedom & U.S. troops are “reduced” to 50,000.
2011 Libya: U.S. bombings & drone attacks of Libyan forces.
2011 Pakistan: U.S. military forces allegedly assassinate Osama Bin Laden although no body is recovered
2011 Somalia: Drone strikes against al-Shabab militants
2011 Nigeria: US Combat troops sent in as “advisers”
2011 Uganda: US Combat troops sent in as “advisers”
2011 Yemen: 26 public recorded DRONE attacks